Descriptive type: English language
1. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it in your own words as far as practicable.
The short story as a brief and complete narrative, restricted to a single effect and dealing for this reason with one profile. Some particular and revealing aspect of the central character’s personality in a single episode, is perhaps a fifteenth or sixteenth century phenomenon in Europe . it developed, evidently from stories woven into regular novels. Such as un Cervantes Don Quixote and in Alexander Dumas. Three musketeers. In the England of Dr. Johnson’s era, the short story technique was applied to tales for teaching moral lessons. Only in the nineteenth century did it begin to acquire the form that is familiar to us today. Perhaps the greatest practitioner of the short story in Europe, and the man who gave it its modern status as an independent and special literacy form was guy de Maupassant. From France the form travelled to England and Russia and was immediately adopted in America. Edger Allen Poe used the short story form for tales of mood and horror as well as for detective stories. O. Henry turned the short story to humour and wit.
It was inevitable that, under the influence of English writing, when the British ruled South Asia, the short form should make its way here. As in other places, in South Asia too, story –telling is an ancient art older than “Katha Sarit Sagar” and the “Panchatantra” (volumes of stories and fables). But the short story, in story-telling, did not develop significantly as a independent form until story-telling was yanked into the modern age with the work of Prem Chand, who wrote in Urdu and Hindi. His language might be described most partly as Hindustani, the trunk from which the Persianized refinement branched out into Urdu and the Sanskritised refinement into Hindi. The direction towards a modern sensibility came from him primarily, and the thread was picked up by Ismat Chugtai, who came into popular acclaim with her two volumes of short stories, “Kaliaan” and “Choten”. Her stories dramatized in character and action the social ways, wiles and wisdom of men and women of the 1930s and the 1940s: though she continued to write in the following years, and though her work retained its verve and pointedness. She has been considered essentially as some kind of bridge between the restrained story –writing of Prem Chand on the one hand and the (sometimes shocking) candid and explicit stories of Saadat Hassan Manto and the two most prominent fiction writers spawned by the progressive writers movement, Krishan Chander and Rajinder Singh Bedi.
These three writers, Manto, Krishan Chander and Bedi, lifted the Urdu short story to its most sophisticated level. They have been recently made available to the English-reading public in translation by Mr. jai rattan, two volumes of the selected shirt stories of Krishan Chander and Rajinder Singh Bedi published by the Sahitya academy. New Delhi, and a collection of the short stories of Saadat Hassan Manto. The Best of Mant, published by Sterling Publishers, New Delhi.
Of these three writers, Manto, who died in 1955 at the young age of forty-two-veered dictionary to the language used by Prem Chand, a Hundustani written in alif-bey, but carrying thought and implications that was a great deal more subtle and pointed. However, what manto is known most of all are for his defiance of social convention about what may and may not be publicly stated and his pen-chant for depicting scenes and action explicitly. A certain section of the public –the middle class orthodox who preferred a gloss of mortality, and stood resolutely by ossified rites and attitudes –opposed him with all the influence at its command and he was hauled up a number of times on charges of obscenity. It there is anything for which one might call him to account, it is that he ends occasionally to be self-consciously unreserved and unrestrained in his picking of themes and in the language in which he expressed himself. Statement detracts from subtlety. For all this, Manto’s stories, reminiscent in some ways of Maupassant, do not make lust, greed and exploitation attractive, though he writes with sympathy of the twilight world of prostitutes and underdogs; his knowledge and understanding of their lives, aspirations and endeavours is obviously authentic. Stories such as ‘Khol De’ (translated by Mr. Jai Rattan as ‘Loosen Up’). Toba Tek Singh and Babu Gopinath are today almost classic, and will continue to stay relevant to the South Asians predicament for a long time.
a) Why is the language of Prem Chand rightly called Hindustani?
b) Why did many people oppose Manto?
c) What are the characteristics of Ismat Chugtal’s short stories?
a) Mention two salient features of Manto’s writings?
b) “These three writers, Manto, Krishnan Chander and Bedi, lirted the Urdu short story to its most sophisticated level”.—what does this line indicate?
2. Make a precis of the following passage in not more than one third of its original length and suggest a suitable title.
There is a famous speech recorded of an old Norseman, thoroughly characteristic of the Teuton. “I believe neither in in idols nor in demons,” said he, “I put my sole trust in my own strength of body and soul.” The ancient crest of a pickaxe with the motto of “Either I will find a way or make one,” was an expression of the same sturdy, independence which to this day distinguishes the descendants of the Norsemen. Indeed nothing could be more characteristic of the scandinavian mythology, than that it had a god with a hammer. A man’s character is seen in small matters, and from even so slight test as the mode in which a man wields a hammer, his energy may in some measure be inferred. Thus an eminent Frenchman hits off in a single phrase the characteristic quality of the inhabitants of a particular district in which a friend o this proposed to settle and buy land. “Beware,” said he, “of making a purchase there; I know the men of that department; the pupils who come from it to our veterinary school at Paris do not strike hard upon the anvil; they want energy; and you will not get a satisfactory return on any capital you may invest there.” A fine and just appreciation of character, and strikingly illustrative of the fact that it is the energy of the individual men that gives strength to a state, and confers a value even upon the very soil which they cultivate.
The cultivation of this quality is of the greatest importance; resolute determination in the pursuit of worthy objects being the foundation of all true greatness of character. Energy enables a man to force his way through irksome drudgery and dry details, and carries him onward and upward in every station in life. It accomplishes more than genius, with not one-half the disappointment and peril. It is not eminent talent that is required to ensure success in any pursuit, so much as purpose, -not merely the power to achieve, but the will to labour energetically and persevering. Hence energy of will may be defined to be the very central power of character in a man-in a word, it is the man himself. It gives impulse to his every action, and soul to every effort. This hope is based on it,- and it is hope that gives the real perfume to life.
3. Write a letter to the editor, the Hindu, expressing your deep concern on the impact of adult graded cinemas on young minds.
4. Write an essay in about 500 words on any one of the following topics:
a) Cottage Industries
c) Blessings of science
d) Dowry Deaths
e) My motherland
1. a) the language of Prem Chand is rightly called Hindustani because it has the refinement of both Urdu and Hindi.
b)Many people opposed Manto because they considered his writings obscene.
c) i)Ismat Chugtai’s short stories depict the social life in India of 1930s and 1940s.
ii) her stories form a kind of bridge between the styles of Prem Chand and the later writers of Progressive writers’ movement.
d)The two characteristics of Manto’s writings are:
i)Manto’s stories are known for their defiance of social conventions.
ii) Manto’s style knows no restrictions.
e)The line indicates that the efforts of Manto, Krishan Chander and Bedi made the Urdu short story modern and refined.
2. Title: Energy-basis of character.
Precis: The belief that Norse-men have trust in pure strength is amply revealed by the fact that their god is represented carrying hammer. Strength is an impression of sturdy independence and this is maintained by Norsemen to the present day. Energy is an extremely important quality in a truly great character. It is the energetic individuals who make a state strong. Energy can accomplish more than even genius and talent, what matters in life is not the power to achieve but the will to work ceaselessly for the goal. This needs energy. A good and minute observer can understand the trivial actions. The cultivation of this quality (energy) is of paramount importance as it provides the resolution so badly needed in pursuit of noble objects and is the very basis of true and great character.
3. Karan Ahuja
August 15, 2009
Through the columns of your esteemed daily, I wish to express my views about the impact of adult grade cinemas on young people. Full of foreign imitation, vulgarity, sex, cheap romance, catchy and unhealthy songs etc., have their harmful influence of the modern youth. The fashions and pseudo-adventures of their heroes and heroines will sooner than later get into trouble. The films are responsible to a great extent for the acts of indiscipline, disobedience by the youths of today. It is absolutely necessary that our censor authorities should be strict and not approve a movie if it is likely to mislead the youth.
4. (c) BLESSINGS OF SCIENCE
The modern system of livelihood is solely related to science. Men are totally dependent on science. Science has paved a new path of advancement in men’s life in every nook and corner of his living. Everything seems to be at the tip of his finger. Whatever he want he can do, sitting in his own chair. Luxury has reached its acme by the new inventions made by men with the aid of science.
Most of us judge science by what it has done to increase the happiness of mankind. It has done a great service to mankind. It has brought about changes in our everyday life. In every sphere, we depend on one or the other invention of science.
Science has given us a number of quick and safer means of transport and communication. These have helped to destroy the barriers of time and distance. Now every corner of the world is easily accessibly by means of railways, ships and airplanes. This has made the world look smaller and created a feeling of international sympathy and brotherhood among the people.
The modern means of communication enable us to send messages almost immediately to any part of the world. They have made the spread of every corner of the world. People all over the world are benefited from the wisdom of a nation. There is a constant exchange of ideas among the peoples of different countries. This has helped to create a better understanding of one another’s problems and points of view.
Science has brought comfort and safety to every individual. Now we can grow more food in the fields than even before. Most of our work is now done by machines. This saves labour and gives us more time for recreation and research work.
Science has given us a number of things which have made domestic life comfortable. For example, electricity lights our houses, cooks our food, washes our clothes, keeps us warm in winter and cool in summer.
Science has provided us with various means of healthy recreation. Radio and television not only entertain us but have also proved very useful from the educational point of view. The invention of the printing press has enabled us to enrich our minds with the knowledge of all the ages. It has also made the appearance of newspapers possible.
Medical science has helped to increase the longevity of human life. Now no disease is regarded as incurable. Now it is possible even to replace almost every part of the human body.